MIT Techology Review: The Imperative to Explore

  • October 24, 2012
  • MIT Technology Review
  • By: Buzz Aldrin

Following our first “small step for man” with the Apollo 11 landing on the moon on July 20, 1969, there was an expectation that mankind was embarking on our ultimate journey—the expansion of humanity into the cosmos. Unfortunately, more than 43 years since that remarkable event, we have made little progress toward this larger goal, save for extended human presence in low Earth orbit. One might question the very premise of our undertaking such a journey in the first place.

As Neil and I first stood on the surface of the moon looking back at Earth—a bright blue marble suspended in the blackness of space—the experience moved us in ways that we could not have anticipated. We immediately realized just how precious our tiny planet truly was, knowing that everyone who had ever lived, all the knowledge that was ever discovered, everything we had ever known or loved, resided on that astonishingly beautiful, incredibly small planet we call our home.

Yet there was also a sense of connectedness. Earth is in space, and everything that formed our planet—the elements from distant stars that combined with other elements and found their way to this special crucible that produced life, our life—came from space. Given that, the very question of whether we should go into space seems moot. We are already in space. It surrounds us, provides the energy that ultimately feeds and sustains us, while tantalizing us with its mysteries and fueling our hunger for understanding—understanding our origins, the uniqueness or abundance of life in the universe, and our human destiny.

There are, of course, many practical reasons for us to explore. They touch on our economic strength, our health and well-being, and the ability of our planet, with its finite and limited resources, to sustain us.

In my own generation, NASA’s Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs inspired countless young students to pursue degrees in science and engineering, creating a technical workforce unmatched in our history. Many of these students eventually contributed to Apollo, and to other space-related endeavors, while others went on to careers in other fields. In the collective, they produced the technological breakthroughs that led to our successes in space, but they also produced technologies and capabilities that are a part of our daily lives—instantaneous global communication, weather forecasts and disaster prediction, systems that let us observe tyrants and monitor treaty compliance (which helps ensure peace), and electronic devices held in our hands that seem only slightly removed from “magic,” not to mention the analytical medical and health-care systems that extend our lives and contribute to our well-being. This remarkable growth in engineering, technology, and science created an economic base that still sustains us.

One of the most important questions we need to face in the near term is the question of sustainability. A world population of more than seven billion people is growing rapidly, consuming the limited resources of our planet at an unsustainable rate while we also create environmental distress that may adversely affect our future viability on Earth. We now have a clear choice—to compete for the diminishing resources remaining on Earth (a closed system) or to coöperate in the exploitation of the limitless resources and opportunities evident in space (an open and expansive system). To me the choice is an obvious one.

Given the periodicity of global events that have threatened life on Earth, and the inevitability of many new threats that we cannot predict, there is one obvious step we can undertake to enhance the survivability of our species, as our forefathers did so many years ago. That is to explore and settle new worlds, thereby establishing dissimilar redundancy and new populations that will doubtless evolve in very diverse ways, much as humanity did in the different continents on which it established a foothold and a new beginning here on Earth.

One way we might do it

I have spent several decades exploring the use of an Aldrin Mars Cycler—an innovative concept that would exploit the natural relative orbits of Earth and Mars to provide a reusable, periodic, perpetual method of transferring people and cargo between Earth and Mars. The permanently orbiting cycler would require very modest amounts of energy to maintain its trajectory. It would provide a repeating “orbital window” roughly every two years and 52 days (in Earth time), affording a nominal six-month transit time to Mars, whereupon the cycler would continue, departing Mars and returning to the Earth approximately 20 months later.

If a return or Mars flyby mission were desired, the crew would stay aboard the cycler and return to intercept the Earth’s orbital transfer orbit 20 months later, repeating the two years and 52 days orbital cycle. For Mars surface missions, the crew would depart the cycler as it approaches Mars, and use an entry vehicle, or Mars lander, for the entry, descent, and landing phase of the mission. A launch vehicle from the Mars surface could rendezvous with a second cycler for a six-month return trip to Earth.

Buzz Aldrin orbited the Earth in the Gemini 12 mission and piloted the lunar module on Apollo 11.

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5 Responses to “MIT Techology Review: The Imperative to Explore”

  1. I find this fascinating (especially after watching the Interstellar movie), but hard to understand or “imagine” as I don’t have much knowledge of physics.

  2. […] Especially in the technology field which to me feels a great deal more important in terms of creating our common future than, say, the restaurant industry. See this amazing article. […]

  3. Humanity should look back up to skies instead of looking down to facebook on the screen of a computer .

  4. Dalpay says:

    Social Networks have eroded the proverbial “Big Picture”. The cocktail party of Social Networks allows those who are sophisticated to acquire access to physics and engineering which they are not able to fully understand. Most drivers inside a complicated machine, are able to negotiate the highway, until some unfamiliar circumstance arises. Social networks have eliminated the Why from the How. Engineering is hard pressed to identify the difference between hard datum and graphic designs. Simulations are filling the void but in some cases even these are optimistic representations. For instance; a WWII Flying Fortress does not have the flight characteristics to barrel roll as represented by CAD graphic artists.

  5. AJAY JAIN says:

    Buzz Aldrin’s Cycler based travel to MARS using six such Cyclers staggered in orbit between Earth and MARS would be ideal. Elon Musk is one visionary who can accomplish regular visits to MARS and back!

    Dr. Buzz Aldrin’s vision of our history of Space Exploration and its place in future

    Elon Musk is a great legend ripe for the US Space Age of today but way ahead of his time. He has realized his dreams in exploiting the Internet through founding his Billion dollar company PayPal, in promoting sustainable energy production like through his company SOLAR CITY, his promotion of sustainable energy consumption like through his all electric car company TESLA and his vision to promote space travel through his company SPACEX and is making progress successfully by leaps and bounds.

    SpaceX is our answer to Space Exploration and a visit to settle on MARS and an Asteroid. An offshoot to our MARS exploration should building an Asteroid avoidance system before 2039 which is of prime importance.

    Elon Musk made his first fortune selling PayPal to eBay in 2002. Now NASA is using his SpaceX to resupply the International Space Station while shares of his Tesla electric car company gained 10% last year. Next up: SolarCity, run by Musk’s cousin Lyndon Rive, wants to put solar panels on your home (except not for my home in Garland Texas USA because my local Utility company does not provide the appropriate solar rebates!).

    SpaceX CEO Elon Musk at the House Appropriations Texas Published Mar 8 ’13

    Space Exploration gets private with SpaceX Dragon Published Mar 5 ’13

    SpaceX Hatch Opening of CRS-2 Dragon on ISS Published Mar 4 ’13

    SpaceX Dragon carrying NASA Cargo arrives at International Space Station Published Mar 3 ’13

    SpaceX Elon Musk’s view from Mission Control Published Feb 28 ’13

    SpaceX CEO Elon Musk – Europe’s rocket has no chance Published Nov 20 ’12

    SpaceX boldly looks to blast millions of people Mars Published May 3 ’12

    SpaceX Next – Falcon Heavy Press Conference April 2011.

    A Pioneer in Space and On Earth. CNN, June 11, 2012.

    SpaceX: Entrepreneur’s race to space.

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    Elon Musk on Sixty Minutes

    The Colbert Report: Elon Musk The Colbert Report, July 28, 2010.

    Elon Musk Profiled: Bloomberg Risk Takers: Video – Bloomberg Uploaded Jan 2013–AM.

    “Bloomberg Risk Takers” profiles Elon Musk, the entrepreneur who helped create PayPal, built America’s first viable fully electric car company and started SpaceX…

    National Geographic: Megafactories TESLA Model S (English) Uploaded Jan 2013

    2013 TESLA Model S – The quickest Sedan Built in America

    Elon Musk – Presentations.

    An Evening with Elon Musk and Alison van Diggelen Uploaded Feb 2013.

    The future of Energy & Transport Uploaded Nov 2012.!

    Interview with Elon Musk Uploaded Sept. 2012

    Fireside Chat with Elon Musk Uploaded July 2012

    National Press Club Luncheon with Elon Musk Uploaded Sept. 2011

    Chairman’s Forum Uploaded April 2011

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    Time Magazine: 10 Questions – Elon Musk Uploaded July 2010

    Pricing is important. Suggestion: Why don’t all TESLA Model S YouTube Videos say UPFRONT that this car is about $90,900 direct from Tesla. The most economic model (Model S 40kWh) can be had for just over $50k with 160 mile range. Chevy Hybrid VOLT publicizes its price at $32K with just an EPA estimated 38 mile range. TESLA Model S 40kWh 160 mile range range beats VOLT, LEAF & others.. anyday!

    TESLA Model X Official Reveal Uploaded Feb 2012 Reservations for TESLA Model X is open at for 2014 delivery.

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    Ajay Jain
    Twitter: @ajain31
    Mobile 214-207-9781